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Apr 30

Starting with CSS and bug fixing tips

2008 at 10.18 am posted by Veerle Pieters

I receive a lot of e-mail per day and some of them are from people who want my help on CSS or if I know why certain things don’t work or show up in IE 6 or 7 etc. If I could help fix their problem? In a lot of cases I need to e-mail back that the code they’re using is full of errors and that they’re using old school techniques (tables for layout), inline styling etc. So the first tip here is, learn about Web Standards and learn about coding with CSS for layout. There are a lot of good books out there to learn this from the start. This is the basis of good web design.

Learn about Web Standards

If you have no idea what I'm talking about, then here is your chance to start to learn about all this.

Why Web Standards

Learn what Web Standards are and why you should use them in every site or web page you build. Most of these articles are old but the benefits are still valid if you start coding the best practice way.

Starting

Get started and turn the knowledge you've learned into practice by using CSS for layout. If you have no clue where to start this adventure you'll find these links handy I think.

Lynda.com (video based tutorials - paying)
Books

There are a lot of good books out there and this is just a small selection of them that I think are well suited towards beginners.

CSS bug fixing

This is one of the things that a good web designer has to go through each time he or she codes a page using CSS for layout. Following Web Standards is the way to go and it should be an obvious choice when you take your job serious. Today I want to share some of my thinking process and the steps I usually go through when I'm at this phase of the process. But before jumping on the bandwagon to fix things consider these criteria...

Make sure your markup is well structured

Make sure your markup is well structured, in other words use the appropriate markup for the appropriate content. Use headings for titles, paragraphs for blocks of text, ordered and unordered lists to sum things up in list form or for your navigation, fieldsets in combination with legend and label elements for forms... Last but not least, use tables only for what they're meant for, tabular data.

Validate your markup

It's not just about the green check mark in the bottom right hand corner of your browser or 0 errors or warning on the W3C Validator that matters. This is only an extra check and a confirmation that your code validates. The W3C markup validator or W3C CSS validator should be your tools for sure. Tools that help you create the right coding, but keep in mind that this is just a machine that runs a test for you. Certain coding mistakes, such as using the wrong or structure-less code for certain content will not be seen as a mistake by this machine, so make sure this is in order. Validating your pages is an absolute requirement before you start to fix any CSS layout problems.

Fixing for IE 6 and/or 7

Ok, your code is well structured and your page validates. The page looks fine in browsers that follow the standards like Firefox and Safari, but you still need to fix a few things for IE6 and 7. How do you proceed? Here are the steps I usually follow. It comes down to analyzing and trying to isolate the problem...

Isolate the problem via XHTML

You can try to disable certain blocks of code in your XHTML. Use comment tags and put certain blocks of XHTML coding in comments. View the page and see if the problem is still there. Do this block by block starting with the bigger ones: left column, right column, content, header etc. At a certain point chances are you see your problem disappear. If you commented out a big block of content, uncomment smaller nested blocks of content now to isolate the problem until you have as less code in comment as possible.

Isolate the problem via CSS

Isolating the problem via XHTML is not always an option and so you can also try to disable certain properties of styles or certain styles all together to see what happens. Some styles might interfere with other styles. Some styles need to be more specified before they have effect because they've been overwritten by another style etc.

Everybody has his or her own method to try to solve things and we all have our favorite tools. Mine are Adobe DreamWeaver for the HTML coding in combination with CSSEdit for my CSS styling. Especially CSSEdit's Preview feature in combination with the XRay mode has saved me a ton of time. When you are in XRay mode you simply select an element, and you'll see its margins and padding (if any) and the space this element takes. At the top of the Preview page you see the all the parent elements with classes and id naming etc. All of them are clickable as well. In the Inspector panel you'll see all CSS styles that apply to the selected element. Clicking on one of the styles in the Inspector panel will open the CSS stylesheet (if it's not open yet) and will bring you to the selected style. You can preview URLs and import the styles and use the overwrite method. I use that a lot when I try to help someone out. When you need to experiment while you debug, you can use the Milestones feature. Compare this a bit with the Snapshot function in the History panel of Photoshop. I say this is pretty neat stuff :)

CSSEdit's XRay feature in action

Color the background of elements

In a lot of cases div containers are jumping down or they've moved to the left or right. It might be that the div has grown in width. Try adding background colors to your divs or elements to see the exact box of space they take.

Is it a known bug?

Check the Internet Explorer vs. the Standards "list" of known bugs or check the Explorer Exposed! list. At the bottom of this article I list a few sites that are good resources for CSS bug fixing.

Use conditional comments

I always use a separate CSS stylesheet for Internet Explorer 6 and 7 and link to the stylesheet via a conditional comment. With this conditional comment you address Internet Explorer lower than version 8:

  1. <!--[if lt IE 8]>
  2. <link rel="stylesheet" href="ie.css" type="text/css" media="screen" />
  3. <![endif]-->
Avoid hacks

I'm using the * html selector for IE 6 specific styles and I place them in a separate stylesheet using a conditional comment that only lower versions of IE 8 will read. The rules starting with * html will not be executed by IE 7. Rules without * html are for both IE 6 and 7.

CSS bug fix resources

You'll run into trouble sooner or later and these sites can help you to figure out what's going on.


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permalink this comment Nic Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 11.13 am

Wow, thanks for such an exhaustive piece! This will be a great reference point for lots of beginning web developers, and of course you have tons of excellent tips for everybody, even if you’re not a beginner.


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permalink this comment Paul Nowak Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 11.41 am

Delicious list, thanks a lot :)


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permalink this comment Dangerboy Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 02.00 pm

I’ve actually found that the Firefox Web Developer 1.1.5 add-on tool is a wonderful resource for any developer/designer. Once you have that add-on (free), you can go to the plug-in from the Firefox menu to Display Page Validation and you automatically have a flag in your toolbar that assures your pages is CSS and XHTML valid (or whatever DOCTYPE you have set in your page). If it is not, they connect you to the W3C validator with a list of suggestions to correct in your page. I AM NOW ADDICTED to this tool and depend on it to easily debug any page:)


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permalink this comment Jack Waddington Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 03.28 pm

Thank you for finding the time to put together such an exhaustive list for Beginners and the less-than-skilled web masters. As a retired Typographer (Typesetter, Desktop Publisher, Graphic Artist, or whatever they call themselves these days), I am struggling to teach myself XHMTL and CSS. Believe me, at 72 it is no easy task; but, oh, how I would have loved to have had the opportunity to have written web pages way back when!


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permalink this comment Nor Sanavongsay Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 04.49 pm

Great article! I wanted to write a similar blog, but this one will beat it to a pulp since I’m not a great writer like you. Thank you Veerle!


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permalink this comment Nick Husher Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 05.12 pm

More than Firefox Web Developer, I’ve found that Firebug is invaluable in tracking and tweaking style rules.

For debugging CSS problems in Internet Explorer, Microsoft offers a similar developer toolbar. It’s not quite as sophisticated, but it allows you to debug some seemingly-nonsensical CSS issues easily. You change your style rules on the fly by dynamically altering the STYLE attribute of selected elements—with that open in one window and quirksmode open in the other, debugging becomes much easier.

Safari also has a developer toolbar, and Opera has a bookmarklet-based one of its own.


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permalink this comment Peter McKenna Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 05.21 pm

FireFox + FireBug = CSS / HTML Development Heaven.


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permalink this comment flokke Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 05.24 pm

Very nice article (again ;-)
Firebug is also a very nice tool I use a lot.


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permalink this comment Aaron Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 05.31 pm

That is a good list of tools and articles for starting web developers! I’ll be sure to pass it on to other folks who could *benefit* from such instruction!

Another tool that you might want to mention is the Firebug add-on for Firefox.  In addition to the web developers add-on, Firebug has saved me many, many hours of debugging.  The big reason I like it more than CSSedit is that CSSedit can only work with css - there is no capability for changing html.  Sometimes when there is a problem in the html that needs fixing, it is a lot easier to test quickly and well in Firebug which allows live html editing.

In any case, great post!


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permalink this comment S.K. Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 06.58 pm

My approach to IE6 is simple.  I make sure my sites looks the same in all the latest browsers and, using conditional comments, create a IE6 version of the site. 

In my portfolio site, for instance, for IE6 I replaced all my .pngs backgrounds with .gifs, replace the background with a solid color, take out a few javascript features, and then leave a couple of special messages for them.

The goal is to create a site that still functions normally in IE6 but gives users an “incentive” to switch to something else.

Also, for Vista users like myself, I am using IETester for my testing needs.


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permalink this comment Lee445 Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 07.40 pm

I like the lists :)
I knew most of the <li>s ;), but some are new to me.

So thank you at this point.


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permalink this comment heather Wed Apr 30, 2008 at 11.14 pm

Thank you so much for taking the time for this post! As a web design student I will find this to be invaluable!!


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permalink this comment Alex Howell Thu May 1, 2008 at 12.53 am

More than web developer Firebug is an indispensible tool:

* Inspect any element (by clicking on it) and see all CSS declarations affecting it (and where they come from)
* Toggle on-off any style declarations, edit or add new ones in real time on the fly
* Inspect DOM elements and see them ‘how JavaScript sees them’
* Highlight padding, margins and bounding boxes
* Edit the HTML of a page in real-time
* See the load times for every resource on the page, and in what order they were requested- displayed in a nice bar graph format
* See AJAX traffic- inluding headers- go in and out in real time.

I simply don’t start work without it.  It’s that darn good.


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permalink this comment John Faulds Thu May 1, 2008 at 01.01 am

Yep, definitely, Firebug is indispensible.


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permalink this comment cpawl Thu May 1, 2008 at 03.32 am

The majority of the time even the * html hack is not needed for IE errors.  It is really just planning and thinking out your structure.  I have been design and developing for over 10 years and out of literary hundreds of site only had to use IE specific hacks twice.  The trick is to learn what the problem in IE is and review your code to work around it.  IE is the devil, for sure, but using IE hacks is admitting you exhausted all other options which if you look more closely you most likely did not.


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permalink this comment Tom Thu May 1, 2008 at 04.03 am

Excellent tips!

In regards to coloring the background of elements, you can also use a 1px border.

-Tom


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permalink this comment Rajita Thu May 1, 2008 at 04.43 am

Validation of CSS code is also very essential for search engine ranking as it helps the google spiders to crawl efficiently
Thanks


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permalink this comment NetOperator Wibby Thu May 1, 2008 at 05.39 am

I am actually starting to learn [more] about web developing and such, so this was a gem! Thanks for the informative post.


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permalink this comment Pete B Thu May 1, 2008 at 09.14 am

A lot of ie rendering bugs can be fixed by setting the ‘hasLayout’ to true.

I use ‘zoom:1;’ in the css to do that. It will not validate. But it is one of the safest fixes—a propriety fix for the propriety layout engine.


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permalink this comment Gilamonster Thu May 1, 2008 at 10.39 am

I recognize so many things I learned from experience in this article. The only thing I wish to add is that you need a lot of patience to succeed. You have to try over and over using trial and error to make your piece of code work. You just can’t become a good webdesigner in one day. So to all webdesigners: Don’t give up, because I won’t either!


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permalink this comment Peter Haza Thu May 1, 2008 at 10.53 am

Now that Apple have a pretty nice version of their web inspector I actually use Safari for my day to day testing, but I still have to fire up Firefox + firebug every now and then to track box sizes and style inheritance.

Anyway, instead of using background-colors to show box models, you can use outlines as defined in the CSS 2 standard. They are like borders, except they don’t affect the box size.

For tracking styles in IE you really should use the IE Developer Toolbar which works in both IE6 and IE7. It’s like a lite version of firebug but works for seing styles applied , tracking them and testing of new styles immediately.

I also use conditional comments for my css, except I have a separate one for both ie6 and ie7, so when I eventually decide to ditch one I can just remove the stylesheet and keep my other stylesheets “less cluttered”. I actually have a few more stylesheets.
* Standardstyles (e.g the one that should work)
* ie.css for fixes in both IE6 and IE7
* ie6.css for IE6 fixes only
* ie6-png.css for PNG fixes in IE6
* ie7.css for IE7 only fixes.


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permalink this comment Goos Thu May 1, 2008 at 10.56 am

I am still learning the basics of CSS but with this article I can go on for weeks. Thanks for the extensive article Veerle.


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permalink this comment Geoff Thu May 1, 2008 at 11.27 am

Tom said:

In regards to coloring the background of elements, you can also use a 1px border.

Using a 1px border will change the size of the element, and potentially cause the layout to migrate.  Changing the background colour will highlight the div, without changing its size.

Regarding ‘fixing’ for multiple versions of IE, I find that doing a general-purpose IE stylesheet - included with conditional comments -  will fix the majority of the bugs (and keep most of the ie fixes in one file). Then doing individual ie5.0, ie5.5 and ie6 specific patch files (which tend to only be a few lines long) allow the code to be tailored to each browser.

and yes - I do have to still work with ie5/5.5/6. Grrrr.


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permalink this comment Peter Haza Thu May 1, 2008 at 12.07 pm

Geoff said:

Using a 1px border will change the size of the element, and potentially cause the layout to migrate. Changing the background colour will highlight the div, without changing its size.

That’s why I recommend using ‘outline’, as that will put a border on the element without adding to the size.

Luckily I have been able to ditch IE5.5 :D


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permalink this comment Roberto Thu May 1, 2008 at 03.19 pm

I have found that coding in Strict mode instead of Transitional will help a lot in the case of IE7, sometimes to the point that no modifications are required.

So I start projects in Strict mode and switch to Transitional only if I really, really, really need to.


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permalink this comment kdesign7 Thu May 1, 2008 at 03.28 pm

Thank you so much Veerle, for posting about CSS bugs! CSS is a very exciting and fun technology, but you definitely have to use it properly. My question is related to your IE comments. I know your blog definitely validates for CSS and HTML, but how is that possible if you use hacks in those style sheets? I know hacks are no-nos for validation.

I am intermediate at CSS, learning more every day about how it works. I know there are so many different ways to create layout in CSS, but what I am finding to be most difficult is how only one of them works across all browsers. I find it almost takes more time because of how different browsers render the code.

Thanks for all you do in the community!


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permalink this comment IceColdEdge Thu May 1, 2008 at 03.45 pm

Excellent read and resource… Very thorough and will be an great help for a semi-novice like me. :-)


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permalink this comment Ismail Shihadi Fri May 2, 2008 at 12.20 am

I found this post very informative, thanks alot

p.s. I have seen hundreds (maybe thousands) of blog layouts in my life, and so far yours is the best


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permalink this comment Veerle Fri May 2, 2008 at 09.29 am

Thank you for sharing your preferred tools. I both know Firefox Web Developer kit and Firebug, but for some reason I find them a bit less attractive and a bit less intuitive to work with. I speak as a designer of course, so that might be the main reason. There is a difference between the way the designer thinks and a programmer. I can do both to an extend, but I definitely have way more design blood in my body for sure :) I do work with Firebug sometimes, but only as a last option really, if I’m with my hands in my hair. This doesn’t happen that often. I find that most what I need to be able to do (or know), I can with CSSEdit in combination with DreamWeaver. Especially the fact that I can see the margins and padding “live” on the element is a big plus for me. In Firebug you see plain boxes and you need to click on the layout tab to see it in a square box. It makes me ‘think’ what is what… This should be shown live on the object not in a separate tab. I can understand why Firebug is such a loved tool by programmers though. It has it all in one application and that’s a big plus and you have this live editing which is pretty cool as well. But like for me for example, I hardly have to deal with Scripting. Only CSS and HTML is needed. I have no problem switching to DreamWeaver to adjust something, save it and reload in CSSEdit. I usually create all my markup first and then go over to CSSEdit and style everything. And if you are using a big screen like I do (30”) you have no problem with 2 pages next to each other in 2 different applications either. It feels like 1 :)

Nick Husher said:

For debugging CSS problems in Internet Explorer, Microsoft offers a similar developer toolbar.

True, BUT a big but here, not sure about you but on my end it acts up every now and then and so it gets seriously on my nerves :)

cpawl said:

The majority of the time even the * html hack is not needed for IE errors.  It is really just planning and thinking out your structure.  I have been design and developing for over 10 years and out of literary hundreds of site only had to use IE specific hacks twice.  The trick is to learn what the problem in IE is and review your code to work around it.  IE is the devil, for sure, but using IE hacks is admitting you exhausted all other options which if you look more closely you most likely did not.

Even thought I believe my ‘list’ of hacks used in the sites I’ve built so far are rather limited (take this complex site for example) I believe I’ve actually used less * html in the past than I do now, and that’s just because I’m coding for IE7 now. IE6 comes second and is less important. So it means I have to fix a lot for the CSS that is not supported in IE6 : min-height, min-width, transparent PNG etc. I don’t want to cut corners because IE6 is “still” there. I want to think forward. With your approach it would mean I still have to use older methods to avoid this * html hack. I believe that’s a wrong way of thinking. Certain known bugs are also unavoidable I think. If you design sites that have a lot of graphics (like mine usually have) then it’s impossible to create these pages without any hack at all and have the pages look perfect in both IE6 and 7.

Pete B said:

A lot of ie rendering bugs can be fixed by setting the ‘hasLayout’ to true.I use ‘zoom:1;’ in the css to do that. It will not validate. But it is one of the safest fixes—a propriety fix for the propriety layout engine.

Yes good point there :) I recently learned about this and I sometimes use the same fix.

kdesign7 said:

I know your blog definitely validates for CSS and HTML, but how is that possible if you use hacks in those style sheets?

Actually for my blog I haven’t used any CSS hack at all. I have split the IE specific styles up into 2 groups: 1 stylesheet for IE6 or older versions (not that I actually checked for these older versions though) and 1 stylesheet for IE7. So because only IE6 or lower versions will read the styles in that stylesheet, you don’t need to put * html in front of them. The CSS there are layout fixes because of lack of proper CSS support; but they’re not hacks. I’ve just tweaked the values of certain styles to get it rendered correctly. Not all fixing needs hacks, actually most fixing doesn’t if you’ve done your job properly. A CSS hack is certain code that isn’t conform with the W3C guidelines. It usually has stars and backslashes. Hope this clarifies things for you.


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permalink this comment kdesign7 Sat May 3, 2008 at 02.04 am

So just for my piece of mind, instead of using a hack for IE6 do you just import the IE6 sheet last so it overrides the styles in the master sheet?


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permalink this comment Melle Sat May 3, 2008 at 11.05 am

@S. K.,

Thanks you for that great tool. Another good tool is: Multiple IE You can even test down to version 3.0. But version 3 till 5.0 isn’t relevant anymore. So thank you.

But… Veerle, I believe that a good designer/developer doesn’t need any hacks in (X)HTML or CSS at all. My site doesn’t uses any hacks and it looks still the same in Safari and IE.

You might have to add an extra simple line of (X)HTML and CSS, but that’s all! Keep this in mind: that’s my experience with (X)HTML and CSS, not with Javascript.

No hacks: good.
A whole sheet (!!!!): very bad

Sorry, but I have to share my troughts. I really hate using hacks.


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permalink this comment Veerle Sat May 3, 2008 at 11.54 am

kdesign7 said:

So just for my piece of mind, instead of using a hack for IE6 do you just import the IE6 sheet last so it overrides the styles in the master sheet?

Yes that’s correct.

Melle said:

But… Veerle, I believe that a good designer/developer doesn’t need any hacks in (X)HTML or CSS at all. My site doesn’t uses any hacks and it looks still the same in Safari and IE.

Sorry but no offense a simple site like yours is easy. We will talk again if you build something really complex that actually contains graphical elements. Just like you I try to avoid hacks or tricks or whatever you call them first but sometimes with complex lay-outs with many graphical elements you have no choice to at least adjust for IE6 to behave.


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permalink this comment David Sat May 3, 2008 at 12.56 pm

As others have said already, I think if you are able to get the code to validate as xhtml strict! then you are have way to winning the battle.

Now CSS3 is on the horizon it opens up another (fancy) can of worms :)


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permalink this comment Jack Keller Sat May 3, 2008 at 06.09 pm

Great post, well put together. I started to use CSSEdit about a year ago and it has become tremendously helpful in development, specifically to the Preview & X-ray functions.

Web Standards are crucial to the future of web design/development, and the trend now is that more and more people gravitating towards it. As the years have gone by we have had to use less and less ‘hacks’ to achieve our goals. Thus giving us the ability to focus on clean and well rendered code. I just can’t wait to see what the next decade will look like!


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permalink this comment Nik Sat May 3, 2008 at 10.36 pm

Great selection of advices. Thanks for summing it up


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permalink this comment Daynah Sun May 4, 2008 at 11.02 am

Great list of resources!  Thank you!


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permalink this comment Brian Mon May 5, 2008 at 06.04 am

My mentor taught me a very valuable tip when I started learning CSS. Leave room for flexibility in your design and you’ll be able to build sites without hacks more often than not.


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permalink this comment Fabian Mon May 5, 2008 at 07.31 am

What about a CSS reset? I think that’s really important for good CSS coding.

All the browsers have different default styles applied to elements. Like a certain padding or margin or a certain font-size (like h1, h2, etc.) If you want your website to look the same in all browsers you must first reset the default styles and replace them by your own afterwards.

Eric Meyers CSS reset is commonly used, it can me found here:
http://meyerweb.com/eric/thoughts/2007/05/01/reset-reloaded/

You can also use a “hard reset”, using the universal selector (*) to target all elements on a page, something like this:

* {
margin: 0;
padding: 0;
}

But using a proper CSS reset would be better, this style takes a lot more time to render, because it has to be applied to all elements on a page.


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permalink this comment Melle Mon May 5, 2008 at 06.55 pm

@Veerle,

You’re right. But some people use for everything a hack.

Professional designers/developers (like you) won’t. ;)


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permalink this comment Ankit Tue May 6, 2008 at 06.03 am

Nice post. I think validation is the toughest problem for amateur web designers :).

Could you suggest a CSS Editor for Windows? I use Firebug but I every now and then it does have a few bugs. There would and should be a better way to edit CSS out there :)


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permalink this comment Veerle Tue May 6, 2008 at 09.08 am

Fabian said:

What about a CSS reset? I think that’s really important for good CSS coding.

I thought about mentioning this, but then I though about my title and the length this article had already :) Yes, it is definitely a part of the process or at least in my process it is, but not really the bug fixing part. I don’t use the universal selector for this. I keep this pretty limited actually. I usually only do this:

html, body, form, fieldset, h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, p, pre, blockquote, ul, ol, dl, address {
  margin:0;
  padding:0;
}

And also this, just to disable the default bullets in lists because I always use my own styling here and I mostly create more then 1 type of list:

ul,li {
  list-style-type:none;
}

Ankit said:

Could you suggest a CSS Editor for Windows?

Yes, StyleMaster from Westciv is definitely a great application as well. It’s built with Web Standards in mind from the ground up. There is also a really good tutorial on Westciv’s website. Very worthwhile checking out ;)


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permalink this comment Martyn Palmer Wed May 7, 2008 at 03.25 pm

A Brilliant list of resources and information on the post for beginners and pro’s alike. Accessibility is key for great web design. I Really enjoyed the post.


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permalink this comment DazzleCat Thu May 8, 2008 at 03.19 pm

A tool i highly recommend (as have others in their posts) is FireBug. Its a free add-in to FireFox… start with this!

P.S.
This is such an excellent blog. I have only found it today and been reading non-stop.


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permalink this comment Hank Wed May 14, 2008 at 02.44 pm

Ankit said:

Could you suggest a CSS Editor for Windows?

Try Aptana Studio


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permalink this comment Nikola Wed May 14, 2008 at 08.22 pm

For windows users I would suggest TopStyle Lite and there is a Pro version too.
Thanks for the other suggestions, some of them are really helpful information.


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permalink this comment Case Stevens Thu May 15, 2008 at 04.45 pm

Excellent post Veerle.
I’m always looking for great information like this and have been browsing the World Wide Web for a couple of years now.
Could have saved myself a lot of time by just going to Deinze, only some three quarters of an hour from my place!
What a small world.



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